Mushroom farming may seem like an arduous and tiresome venture, but if you look closely there is something quite attractive about it. According to official statistics from the National Farmers Information Service (NAFIS), Nigeria produces 300 tonnes of mushrooms per year against a demand of 1200 tonnes.
This therefore means buyers like homes and hotels have to import from elsewhere as local farmers cannot sustain the demand – and herein lies a lucrative business opportunity for you to invest in.
Mushroom Farming in Nigeria
Mushrooms can grow in almost every part of our country provided there is shelter, reliable water supply and stable temperature in the range of 15 to 30 degrees.
Step 1: Getting Started
Of course, you need some land to plant your mushroom crop. A 1/8 th acre piece of land would be adequate to set up a large farm that can produce as much as 2 tonnes of mushrooms after every 2 months (using shelf-frame method).
Step 2: Build a Simple House
Once you have secured a good piece of land, you will need to build a simple mud-house and a few wooden shelves to utilize the vertical space available. Your local carpenter can help you with this and you can improvise on locally available materials to save on construction cost. (Note: Make sure the house is well aerated to allow proper circulation of air).
Step 3: Look for the substrate
The first and most important supply you will need is the substrate. Substrate is basically the substance on which mushrooms grow. This can be Farm or timber waste like sawdust, rice bran, wheat bran, lime etc Make sure this is sterilized as the slightest bacterial infection can ruin your entire farm. A bag of sawdust costs N50 and you will need about 50 bags.
Step 4: Invest In Nylon Bags
You will need small bags to prepare the seedlings and also big bags for the final planting. Small bags like the ones shopkeepers use to package 2KG sugar normally cost about N100 for 200 pieces. Bigger bags can cost as much as N30 per piece and you will require about 1000 of them in a plot of farm.
Step 5: Invest In Good Hygiene
As you will discover through farm training courses, good hygiene is important in a mushroom farm. You will therefore need to buy things like hand gloves, methylated spirit and cotton wool. A box full of gloves costs less than N1,500 – same for methylated spirit and cotton wool. Other additional supplies that may be needed include drinking straws (N1,000) and a knapsack sprayer (N6,500 ).
Step 6: Now Get The Seeds
Finally you will require some mushroom seedlings (also known as spawns). The most popular (and easy to market) spawns are called button spawns. You can buy these from DILOMAT or FIIRO. A Kilogram of oyster spawns costs N2,000. 5 Kilograms will be enough to get you started. Other varieties of mushrooms you can plant including: shiitake and button.
(1)Keep the growing environment clean and sterile always
(2)It’s advisable to experiment with a small farm before venturing into a big farm
(3)Consult an agriculture extension officer in your area for further advice
(4)Seek mentorship from farmers who are already doing this to understand what challenges they face
(5)Explore your market options in advance to avoid last minute surprises and disappointments
(1)Don’t take shortcuts, mushrooms are very delicate crops and you can lose your entire investment if you don’t follow professional advice in handling them
(2)Don’t buy seeds (spawns) from cheaper sources, always buy from reputable sellers e.g. DILOMAT or FIIRO.
(3)Don’t forget that cleanliness is at the center of your farm’s productivity (again, and again)
(4)Don’t be in a rush, take your time, like in any other business mushrooms take time to establish
(5)Don’t stop learning, keep researching and keep enquiring to learn the best practices
How Much To Invest
A plot of farm will require N500,000 to establish from scratch. However, once the farm-house is constructed and the basic supplies are bought then the cost of operating subsequent farming seasons will drop to about N100,000.
How Much To Expect
Oyster mushrooms take less than 40 days to mature and a plot of farm with 1000 bags platforms can give you as much as 2 tonnes of produce. Each Kilogram goes for an average price of N2000 and this can translate to as much as N4 Million in sales revenue.
Mushroom farming, although quite cumbersome and labour intensive, is actually very profitable. All you need to do is to put some effort in learning the best practices and combine that with the brilliant business strategies we teach you on this site to launch the next big brand in the country. So, what’s your excuse for not being a successful entrepreneur?